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BITSAT - 2008

BITSAT - Syllabus: Chemistry

States of Matter

  • Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures.
  • Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
  • Gaseous state: Gas Laws, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
  • Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
  • Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals. Imperfections- Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids – qualitative description.

Atomic Structure

  • Introduction: Subatomic particles; Rutherford’s picture of atom; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model.
  • Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.
  • Many electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.
  • Periodicity: Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valency.
  • Nucleus: Natural and artificial radioactivity; Nuclear reactions.

Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure

  • Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle
  • Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes
  • Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridistaion (s & p orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species.
  • Metallic Bond: Qualitative description.
  • Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

Thermodynamics

  • Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature
  • First Law of Thermodynamics: Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities; Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain; Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law. Bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, dilution
  • Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium; Third Law and Absolute Entropies.

Physical and Chemical Equilibria

  • Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
  • Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass.
  • Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas), Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm.
  • Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Le-Chatelier’s principle.
  • Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; Ionization of Water; pH; Buffer solutions; Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
  • Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of DG and DG0 in Chemical Equilibria.

Electrochemistry

  • Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; Idea of heterogeneous equilibria on the surface of the electrode; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Concentration cells; Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
  • Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific, equivalent and molar conductivities; Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al2,Cl2 , & F2

Chemical Kinetics

  • Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions; Determination of rate constant and order of reaction
  • Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, size of particles; Temperature dependence of rate constant; Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules; Effect of light.
  • Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only; Photochemical reactions; Concept of fast reactions.
  • Radioactive isotopes:  Half-life period; Radiochemical dating.

Hydrogen and s-block elements

  • Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a fuel.
  • s-block elements:  Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships.
  • Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
  • Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with non-metals; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance; Properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement.

p- d- and f-block elements

  • General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group;.
  • Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;
  • Group 14 elements: Carbon: Uses, Allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone,.Zeolites.
  • Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Reactivity and uses of nitrogen and its compounds; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers –  NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids and halides of phosphorus.
  • Group 16 elements:  Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Production of sulphur and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids, hydrides and halides of sulphur.
  • Group 17 and group 18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of chlorine; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids.
  • d-block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; Ionic radii; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography.
  • f-block elements: Lanthanides and actinides; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanide compounds; Lanthanide contraction; Comparison of actinides and lanthanides.
  • Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds.

Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons

  • Classification:  Based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature.
  • Electronic displacement in a covalent bond:  Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanion, nucleophile and electrophile; types of reactions.
  • Alkanes and cycloalkanes:  Structural isomerism and general properties.
  • Alkenes and alkynes: General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic character of alkynes and (1,2 and 1,4) addition to dienes.
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources; Properties; Isomerism; Resonance delocalization; polynuclear hydrocarbons; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction, directive influence and effect of substituents on reactivity.
  • Haloalkanes and haloarenes: Physical properties, chemical reactions.
  • Petroleum: Composition and refining, uses of petrochemicals.

Stereochemistry

  • Introduction: Chiral molecules; Optical activity; Polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; Enantiomerism; Racemates; Diastereomerism and meso structures.
  • Conformations: Ethane, propane, n-butane and cyclohexane conformations; Newman and sawhorse projections.
  • Geometrical isomerism in alkenes

Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen

  • General: Electronic structure, important methods of preparation, important reactions and physical properties of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides.
  • Specific: Effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, basic character of amines and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry

Biological , Industrial and Environmental chemistry

  • The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle.
  • Carbohydrates: Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing sugars – sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides: elementary idea of structures of starch and cellulose.
  • Proteins: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondary , tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes.
  • Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nucleic acids (chemical composition of DNA & RNA); Primary structure of DNA and its double helix; Replication; Transcription and protein synthesis; Genetic code.
  • Lipids, Hormones, Vitamins: Classification, structure, functions in biosystems.
  • Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; Free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations; Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers.
  • Pollution:  Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; Chemical reactions in atmosphere; Smog; Major atmospheric pollutants; Acid rain; Ozone and its reactions; Depletion of ozone layer and its effects; Industrial air pollution; Green house effect and global warming; Green Chemistry.
  • Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food: Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, anti-microbials, anti-fertility drugs, antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids; Cosmetics: Creams, perfumes, talcum powder, deodorants; Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, antioxidants, and edible colours.
  • Other Industrial Chemicals: Dyes: Classification with examples – Indigo, methyl orange, aniline yellow, alizarin, malachite green; Advanced materials: Carbon fibers, ceramics, micro alloys; Detergents; Insect repellents, pheromones, sex attractants;  Rocket Propellants.

  • Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry
  • Volumetric Analysis: Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid; Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, Na2SO3, Na2S2O3and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with KMnO4, K2 Cr2O7/Na2S2O3, Cu(II)/Na2S2O3
  • Qualitative analysis of Inorganic Salts: Principles in the determination of the cations Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and the anions CO32-, S2-, SO42-, SO32-, NO2-, NO3-, Cl-, Br-, I-, PO43-, CH3COO-, C2O42-.
  • Physical Chemistry Experiments: crystallization of alum, copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs. solubility; pH measurements; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification.  Equilibrium studies involving  (i) ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for (i) strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii) iodide vs. hydrogen peroxide,  concentration and temperature effects in these reactions;
  • Purification Methods: Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation – Rf  values.
  • Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation.
  • Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Elementary idea of mass spectrometer for accurate molecular mass determination; Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae.
  • Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments:  Preparation of iodoform, acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, di-benzyl acetone, aniline yellow, beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and study of its acidic character.

 
 

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